Dual language educators and program planners rely on the concept of ‘language as a resource’ as a foundational principle of dual language education (DLE). Traditionally, the term has been juxtaposed to viewing language as a problem and treating students’ home linguistic and cultural experiences as a deficit rather than an asset for teaching and learning in school. In this article, we argue that a “multilingualism as a resource” orientation is needed as a new or additional paradigm in order to re-imagine DLE within the current context and to respond to the increased diversity within DLE programs. We use Duverger’s model that considers language allocation decisions at the macro, meso, and micro levels as a lens to examine the multilingualism-as-a-resource orientation. Drawing on examples at the program model, curricular, and interactional level, we illustrate both the importance as well as the challenging dynamics that emerge as sociopolitical context, language use, and status intersect in the context of two-way immersion programs.


de Jong, E. J., Yilmaz, T., & Marichal, N. (2019). A Multilingualism-as-a-Resource Orientation in Dual Language Education. Theory Into Practice, 58(2), 107-120.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00405841.2019.1569375