This chapter examines the current knowledge base related to secondary two-way immersion (TWI) programs, a growing segment within TWI. Although still only a small number nationwide, secondary TWI programs play an important role in sustaining high levels of language competence in more than one language. The purpose of this chapter is to provide a synthesis of current research on secondary TWI program outcomes and some promising practices by teachers at the secondary level. We also argue that the cultural dimension of TWI must take a more central place in research and practice in secondary TWI programs. We begin with a brief overview of the context of secondary TWI, followed by a review of language and academic program outcomes and end with an overview of the research concerning students’ linguistic and cultural identities. The second part of the chapter focuses on the third goal, cultural outcomes which focus on identity construction and innovative practices to support this goal for adolescent students. We conclude with the challenges of implementing cultural goals as well as high achievement in TWI secondary programs.


Bearse, C. I., de Jong, E. J., & Tsai, M. C. (2018). 6 Opportunities and Dilemmas for TWI Programs at the Secondary Level. Profiles of Dual Language Education in the 21st Century, 86.