Teacher Training and Professional Development
Bilingual Teacher Education


Two‐way immersion (TWI) programs are one type of bilingual education programs that aims for bilingualism and biliteracy, age‐appropriate academic achievement, and cross‐cultural competence for an integrated group of minority and majority language speakers. The programs represent an additive bilingual approach and TWI educators view students’ linguistic and cultural diversity as a resource to build on and extend across social and academic registers. Well‐implemented TWI programs have demonstrated positive academic, linguistic, and sociocultural outcomes in diverse contexts and with diverse student populations. Effective TWI programs share several school, program, and classroom practices.


de Jong, E. J. (2016). Two-way immersion for the next generation: Models, policies, and principles. International Multilingual Research Journal10(1), 6-16.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118784235.eelt0642